Based on Reproductive genetics understanding, therapies are developed and used to maximize outcomes.
Specifically, increased pregnancy rates,decreased incidence of obstetric complications and miscarriage, and the avoidance of fetuses affected by birth defects or other deficiencies are the stated goal of much of the current research in reproductive medicine. The role of genetic testing to guide medical decision making in this regard is sizable and will likely continue to grow in the future.
Genetic evaluations within reproductive medicine may be subdivided into 4 main categories:
1. Preconception genetic testing: The genetic evaluation of prospective parents before pregnancy.
2. Antenatal genetic testing: The genetic evaluation of women who are currently pregnant to determine the genetic makeup of the developing fetus.
3. Preimplantation genetic testing ( PGD and PGS): The genetic evaluation of an embryo, before uterine transfer, via an embryo biopsy during an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure.
4. Genetic analysis following fetal demise: The genetic evaluation of the product of conception following a failed pregnancy.